The cyber way to cure cancer

Non-invasive surgery using cutting-edge technology to cure tumours and cancer was tested on legendary South African cricketer, Clive Rice. His condition after one month was jaw dropping!

Robotic_CyberKnife_at_St._Marys_Of_MichiganUsually people with cancerous tumours take years to complete (or never complete) the emotional ride, but former South African all-round cricketer and Proteas captain Clive Rice (65) successfully completed his tumour treatment in one month.

After collapsing in his home late February this year, scans confirmed Rice had a brain tumour which was too deep for neurosurgeons to remove it with invasive surgery.

Within the next few day Rice was on his way to Bangalore, India to receive innovative robotic radiation treatment called ‘Cyberknife laser surgery’ at the Health Care Global Hospital. The machine, with the help of pioneering software, pinpoints the exact position of the tumour after which the linear accelerator sends out multiple high dosages of radiation beams targeted at the affected area.  The collective energy of the beams attack the cancerous tissue with minimal effect on healthy organs.

VIDEO: CyberKnife Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Rice had three treatments, each an hour long. The doctors tied him to a table to keep him from moving and let the machine float around to do the rest.

With this new advanced technology doctors are also able to treat small effected areas accurately with the built-in X-ray cameras that monitor the patient’s breathing.

The procedure “offers hope to cancer patients with tumours which are otherwise inoperable due to their proximity to major blood vessels or sensitive organs,” said Rice’s radio oncologist, Dr Srivani Sridhar.

According to Sridhar, this safe and pain free method can be used to treat a range of tumours, cancers and benign diseases, including the liver, lungs and bones.

Sridhar recommends this method particularly for inoperable and recurring tumours, to reduce the treatment time significantly.

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BOUNCE BACK: 50-year-old Clive Rice in 2000. Photo: Laurence Griffiths

Rice was told by South African doctors that he was going to die, but through this treatment he received a new breath of live. He said he woke up every day feeling better and labelled the success of the treatment a ‘miracle’.

People around the world are excited and optimistic about beating cancer with this cutting-edge technology. There is no question that hospitals around the world should have at least one of these machines. The real question is, how much does this kind of treatment cost?

Published: The News Hub on 02 July 2015

Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir hides behind the AU’s skirt

Wanted Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, charged with war crimes has been avoiding arrest for the last six year. He has received protection from various of his AU friends and this past week was no different.

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WANTED: 71-year-old Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir. Photo: Provided

With war crime charges and a number of genocide counts against him, Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir fled from South Africa as its government turned a blind eye.

As the host of the 25th African Union Summit, South Africa made themselves ready to receive 54 state leaders last weekend. Amongst these leaders was al-Bashir, who evidently has had two warrants out for his arrest since 2009. The International Criminal Court (ICC) alleged that al-Bashir committed war crimes against Darfur, leaving 300 000 people dead and over 2.5 million displaced. As South Africa is a signatory of the ICC, the government was called upon to meet their obligations in arresting Sudan’s president with his entering the country. The African National Congress (ANC) manoeuvred a gazette in which the AU meeting attendees were granted immunity- more specifically al-Bashir. Al-Bashir was given the freedom by South African government to roam in the country with an alleged promise from President Jacob Zuma that he would not be arrested by South African police. The wanted president attended the summit on Sunday in Sandton, Johannesburg.

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AU DISOBEDIENCE: 25th AU summit host, South African president Jacob Zuma (left) sitting next to the Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir who has had two warrants out for his arrest since 2009. Photo: Provided

During the summit African states, including South Africa, accused the ICC of only targeting African political leaders, while disregarding the crimes committed by leaders of the Middle-East. The ANC called for a review of the ICC as it “is no longer useful for the purpose for which it was intended.” According to the African News Agency Zimbabwean president and AU chairman, Robert Mugabe said “[t]his is not the headquarters of the ICC; we don’t want it in this region at all,” after the Summit on Sunday night.

The ICC responded to the accusations, denying any discrimination arguing that most cases are brought to the ICC by African countries.

After not meeting their obligation to arrest al-Shabir, the human rights promoter, Southern African Litigation Centre (SALC), filed an urgent application at the Pretoria High Court against the government to overturn its immunity grant decision. Judge Hans Fabricuis issued an interim order to prevent the accused president from leaving the country. Fabricuis urged the South African government on Monday to use all its power to keep al-Bashir in the country until the SALC’s application was heard. Fabricuis said if he left the country, South Africa’s international reputation will be at stake.

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CAUGHT FLEEING: President al-Bashir’s plane as it took-off from Waterkloof Airforce Base on Monday afternoon. Photo: Alet Pretorius.

As the court was in session the charged president’s plane took off from Waterkloof Airforce Base outside Pretoria. Questions linger whether the South African government had a hand in al-Bashir’s escape as no one can land or depart from the base without the authorities’ permission. After Al-Bashir’s mysterious departure Judge President Dustan Mlambo ordered government to file an affidavit to explain how and when the Sudanese president left the country. Advocate for the state, William Mokhari said al-Bashir’s name was not on the passenger list and further conveyed that State Security Minister, Siyabonga Cwele, said “the circumstances of departure will be fully investigated.”

Since al-Bashir’s illegal departure from South Africa to Khartoum, Sudan on Monday a formal application of non-compliance was issued against South African government for failing to keep al-Bashir in the country with the intent to report the matter to the UN Security Council. Meanwhile South Africans take to social media to question the decisions of their leadership as South Africa’s written word is questioned internationally.

Published: The News Hub on 18 June 2015

Romantic hot spots on campus

If you are a romantic or just trying to build your credibility as one, here are some places on Wits East and West Campuses where you can ignite the flame or keep it burning.

Many students look for love and find it on campus. Witsies can grow that love by taking that special person to the romantic spots on campus.

  1. Impress your date by taking her/him to the Olives & Plates on West Campus. The old architecture, fountain and beautiful garden makes this spot perfect for a romantic date.

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  1. The grassy comfort and towering trees on West Campus lawn is the perfect setting to have a picnic or just relax with your Boo Boo.

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  1. Have a smooch on the bridge when the waterfall on West Campus comes to life during summer and spring.

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  1. Feeling passionate? Head to one of the quieter libraries for a little lunch time hanky-panky.

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  1. The fountain in front of the William Cullen Library on East Campus has a romantic tone with an intriguing garden with pink roses. Go sit on the benches and take in the picturesque scene.

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Published: Wits Vuvuzela 20 May 2015

Is this the South Africa Mandela fought for?

Over the last two weeks foreign nationals living in South Africa have been stoned in the streets and displaced from their homes. With five deaths and hundreds injured, foreigners are fearing for their lives as the violence continues. These events have been debatably called acts of xenophobia or ‘afrophobia’.

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 Zulu King, Goodwill Zwelithini, made a speech in Pongola, KwaZulu-Natal near the end of March in which he complained about crime and the dirty streets of South Africa. The speech was recorded and translated by eNCA. In the translation the king says that immigrants must “take their bags and go.”

Since then some South Africans have incited violence against foreigners with the king’s words in mind. Chanting “the king has spoken” as they run ramped through the streets stoning foreigners.

Some South Africans have blamed foreigners of taking their jobs and opportunities. Humanitarian aid group Gift of the Givers named the high levels of poverty, unemployment and other socio-economic issue to be the cause of the xenophobic attack “but no matter what the grievances, violence is unacceptable.”

On Monday there was a massive mob of about 2 000 people who took to the streets of Durban and looted the shops of foreign nationals while physically assaulting them. In the hype of the event three South Africans were killed along with two foreigners. Among the killed was a 14-year-old boy who was shot during the looting and died in hospital.

Since then the violence has spread across the country but taken a more solid grip in the Gauteng province.

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Throughout this week xenophobic attacks took place in Johannesburg CBD, Primrose and hit Benoni the hardest on Thursday afternoon. Shops of foreigners have been set on fire, people have been stoned, threatened and forced out of their homes. An anti-xenophobia march in Durban, where thousands attended, ended in mayhem as the police started firing tear gas and water cannons at the crows.

President Jacob Zuma addressed the country on Wednesday condemning the act where people are attacked and killed. Zuma called the current violent events in the country unacceptable. “We cannot accept that when there are challenges we use violence, particularly to our brothers and sisters from the continent.” He also promised that his government will look into the complaint of illegal and undocumented migrants who take over businesses and perpetrate crime.

The Nelson Mandela Foundation and Ahmed Kathrada Foundation welcomed the efforts by the Zuma government to put a stop to the conflict, but added: “For too long, South Africans in leadership positions have either ignored the crisis or stoked the fires of hatred.”

Authorities of African countries, such as Malawi and Zimbabwe, are appalled by the attacks and are making plans to get their people out of South Africa. Zimbabwean Environment Minister, Saviour Kasukuwere, took to Twitter saying that the xenophobic attack in South Africa were a shame on Africans and sad. Another Zimbabwean minister also took to social media saying that the attacks are worse than apartheid.

Mozambicans have responded to the xenophobic attacks in South Africa Friday night, by throwing South Africans with rocks and chasing them to the border. A South African truck driver, John Mashiloane, said that when he wanted to return to Mozambique on Saturday morning a mob of about 300 people were waiting just across the border and threw his truck with stones once again. This border post has been barricaded by Mozambicans since Friday night, not allowing anyone through the post.

Although one cannot pin-point one specific thing that has caused this violence in South Africa, it is clear that no matter what the cause, the reaction is making Mandela turn in his grave. The legendary freedom fighter’s work, success and views are being challenged by the South Africans participating in these attacks. If foreigners, especially African foreigners, are not accepted in South Africa, is it truly a Rainbow Nation?

Published: The News Hub on 20 April 2015

From lust to love: sex and emotional attachment

Book-Club-338x350With sayings like “women are from Venus and men are from Mars”, it is no secret that the male and female sexes are different in many ways. This difference is generally attributed to the fact that different hormones found in each sex affect the way both sexes think and feel. In spite of this, when it comes to having sex, are we really not from the same planet?

According to Emma Gray, a journalist for the Huffington Post, when it comes to the dating world, “Wisdom tells us that men and women have totally different feelings about sex. Women automatically get emotionally attached and men quickly flee to the next social partner.”

However, a study done last year disproved this myth. Psychologist Jim Pfaus and his research team from Concordia University in Canada wanted to discover where feelings of lust and love originate in the brain. By scanning men and women’s brains with fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imagining) machines, these two emotions would light up in the part of the brain they originate from – the striatum (the part of the brain that gets messages about emotions and memories from the cerebral cortex). Although these are two separate emotions, they were found to come from the same area in the brain.

However, more specifically, lust originates from the ventral striatum of the brain, which is associated with the emotion and motivation area of the brain, whereas love comes from the dorsal striatum, which is associated with decision-making. Pfaus says that although love and sex are different, his research team discovered that there is an “overlap between sexual desire and emotional love in the brain’s insular cortex”. This explains why even though someone might have the intention to have meaningless sex, that lust may change into love after sex.

Ian Kerner, a sex therapist and relationship counsellor, argues that even though men and women are free to have casual sex, women almost always form some sort of attachment. Kerner says that with women, “deeper pleasures require some level of emotional attachment”. This is mainly because oxytocin, “the cuddle hormone”, is released during the female orgasm. Dr Lauren Berman, a sex and relationship educator and therapist, says that “oxytocin can inspire feelings of closeness, affection, and intimacy”. Berman goes on to say that “This is why women might ‘catch feelings’ after a one-night stand or a so-called casual hook-up.”

When Perdeby spoke to Tuks student Tamara*, she agreed with Kerner that women feel an attachment after sex, saying, “As soon as sex is over and a guy doesn’t want you anymore, then you get emotional. So it’s more of an emotional attachment to the feeling of being wanted and being close to someone than the actual feeling of being attached to men.”

Berman further mentions that even though men also release oxytocin during orgasm, their high levels of testosterone combat the effect of “lovey-dovey” feelings, making casual one-night stands less meaningful to them. Men’s dopamine (the “pleasure reward” hormone released during orgasm) levels decrease after orgasm is achieved, resulting in men having negative withdrawal symptoms after sex. This makes men feel irritated along with the need to flee from their sexual partners.

Moustapha Diop, a second-year BPolSci student, tells Perdeby that he has never had an emotional connection with a girl after casual sex. “I sometimes feel guilty because the girl makes it obvious that she has feelings for me and my emotions aren’t [the same],” he says. He goes on to say that most men are not as hollow-hearted as they seem, but when it comes to sex, it is only considered as “making love” if the man really likes the woman before they have sex.

 

Erick Leech, a blogger for WomenOnTheFence.com, argues that men who have feelings for a woman need confirmation that their relationship means as much to their partner as it does to them. This confirmation is usually made through sex. “It reminds [men] that [women] are still attracted to [them],” says Leech. Only after this confirmation can some men’s sexual desire be replaced by love and a sense of attachment.

Kerner says that it is possible for women to have meaningless sex like men. He believes that the real question is whether they should or not? Although this answer is up to each individual, there are things for both parties to consider. Kerner feels that “We can treat sex lightly, but sex doesn’t always treat us lightly back in return.” He further explains that casual sex can make a person feel depressed after climax has been reached because people, though mostly women, can sometimes feel “post-orgasm regret” along with anger and sadness if there was a feeling of hollowness and a lack of passion during sex.

It seems that the orgasm, which is the main goal of sex, may have a negative side effect after all. Although casual sex may not affect you directly, the other person could have unwillingly broken the core rule of engagement – no emotional attachment. It appears that men and women can view casual sex in the same way, but it doesn’t necessarily mean that they will come out on the other side seeing eye to eye.

Published: Perdeby on 2 May 2013

Condom as a contraceptive: why you should reconsider

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PHOTO: Oan de Waal

When it comes to condoms, it’s a spiel most of us are all too familiar with. Our parents, teachers and the media have preached to us about how important it is to use them to avoid contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or falling pregnant. The question is: how would you react if you knew that condoms had an additional health benefit?

There are people who decide against using condoms for personal reasons and that choice is their right. It is understandable why some avoid them when statistics such as those by LiveScience.com report that condoms have a 15% failure rate. However, according to the same website, the condom is still being used by 85% of sexually active couples to prevent unwanted pregnancies and STIs.

It has been found that condoms keep women healthy. A recent study by the Beijing Friendship Hospital in China set out to determine the connection between non-hormonal contraception methods, such as using a condom or the rhythm method (when couples abstain from sex when pregnancy is most likely to happen based on the woman’s menstrual cycle), and hormonal contraception methods such as the pill and the intrauterine device (IUD) on women’s vaginal reproductive health. This study was conducted in China because of the country’s high percentage of women using contraceptives due to the one-child policy that was adopted by the country in 1979. In the study, there were 164 married and/or sexually active women between the ages of 18 and 45. Of the 164, 72 women used condoms, 57 used IUDs and the remaining 35 used the rhythm method. After dividing the participants into those three categories of contraceptive use, researchers waited until the women were on the 21st or 22nd day of their menstrual cycle and then collected vaginal swabs for testing.

Although a healthy vagina contains a mix of “good” and “bad” bacteria, this study focused on the good bacteria. The bacterium that researchers were mainly focused on was Lactobacillus, described by Rachel Reilly from InsiderOnline.com as “bacteria that dominates the natural flora of the vagina for many women”.

Lactobacillus in the vagina makes the vaginal environment slightly acidic and prevents harmful bacteria from growing in the vagina. The microbes in the good bacteria produce hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid which create what researchers call an “acidic buffer system” that works as a barrier against harmful bacteria that could cause infections. By blocking out harmful bacteria, the vagina can maintain an average pH acidity level of 4.5. The Lactobacillus bacterium is said to help prevent the outburst of bacterial vaginosis, which occurs when there is an imbalance of good and bad bacteria in the vagina, resulting in itchiness, abnormal vaginal discharge and a “fishy” odour. According to Megan Gannon, the news editor of LiveScience.com, good bacteria, such as Lactobacilli, have even shown to decrease a woman’s chances of contracting HIV.

In the study, researchers found that the level of Lactobacillus was predominantly higher in the women who used condoms as a form of contraceptive as opposed to those who used IUDs and the rhythm method.

Unprotected sexual activity can throw off the pH balance of the vaginal environment since semen has a pH level of 7 to 8, a number which decreases the acidity level in the vagina. Although the condom itself has not shown to provide good bacteria, it does ensure that a woman’s vagina maintains its required natural acidity level to be healthy.

Published: Perdeby 

UJ student vigilantes

“Vimba, Vimba!”

With these cries of help, students wearing pyjamas and armed with knobkieries and mops flood out of residences and into the streets chasing a mugger after hearing someone shout

This phenomenon, where students play the role of vigilante, has apparently developed in and around the UJ residences in Doornfontein over the past seven years. The students take it upon themselves to help one of their own by searching for the suspects and “beat them to bits” if they find them.

Joy Shikwambana and two of her friends were mugged by three men last year. They shouted for help and within five minutes hundreds of students were in the streets.

“It is a wise form of protection. Crime would definitely be higher around reses without it,” said the second year environmental health student at UJ. Shikwanbana said victims can only yell after the criminals start running “because they can hurt you when you scream if they have weapons”.

“When the students hear the call there are hundreds of them running out of the res to go and hit these muggers. But then sometimes they get excited and run in the wrong direction,” said a security guard at UJ Sunvalley Residence, Ntsieni Manezhe.

He said the students get out of hand and grab stones and bricks in the streets to beat the attackers.

“We security guards from Fidelity, Stallion’s and UJ security have to protect these muggers from the mob, because if every one of those hundred students get one hit in they will kill them. It’s not right to take the law into your own hands.”

This vigilante culture has drawn attention because of its violent nature. The purpose of the use of violence is “to send a message to criminals that pain will be inflicted upon them, which tends to keep them away”, said third-year Sports Communication student at UJ, Selby Mogale.

In some of these cases UJ students have chased and beaten the wrong guy, according to Marnitz Oldewage, a third-year Mining Engineering student at UJ.

“I once drove past a crowd and saw students dragging the mugger by his feet down the street while he was full of blood and unconscious,” said Oldewage. He said although it gets violent he is all for this trend because not only does it scare criminals away but “no matter what race, gender or background you have they will always have your back”.

Oldewage said students think the police only drop off the muggers somewhere else after taking them away from the crowd, to get out of the paper work.

The police are unaware of the Vimba culture in Doornfontein, where many UJ residences are situated, according to Gauteng Police spokesperson, Lieutenant-Colonel Katlego Mogale.

Published: Wits Vuvuzela on 13 March 2015

SRC secretary general: Education campus ‘segregated’

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Students are racially segregated at Wits Education Campus, according to SRC secretary general Sensekahle Mbokazi. Photo: Zimasa Mpemnyama

SRC secretary general Senzekahle Mbokazi, said segregation has created a “negative vibe” on Wits Education Campus.

“White and Indian people are always together at the expensive cafeteria and black people always hang out at the bus stop cafeteria,” said Mbokazi.

Mbokazi said combating segregation was one of the reasons for the Education Week (E-Week) initiative, which took place between the 23rd and 25th of March.

As an education student herself, Mbokazi said she is bothered by the separation of the groups on Education Campus on the basis of race.

“We need more interactive space where we can watch performances and sit together,” she said.

Although visually it appears as if there is segregation on Education Campus, when Wits Vuvuzela asked Education students whether they felt their campus was segregated, few seemed to agree.

“There is no segregation, not in terms of race. It’s not a bad thing if people are more comfortable sitting next to people speaking the same language,” said fourth-year Education student Precious Mofokeng.

First-year Education student Kalvin van Wyk said as a white person from a former Model C school it is very difficult to integrate with racial groups he didn’t know or understand “but I am trying.”

Published: Wits Vuvuzela on 27 March 2015

 

Gaming the institution

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GOOD GAME: Wits Game Design students testing one of the three profile games. PHOTO: Provided

Wits Games Design students have created three games to profile and promote the University of the Witwatersrand.

The idea was that of Vice Chancellor, Adam Habib, who personally initiated the project after asking the senior Games Design students to think of out-of-the-box games to promote Wits, early last year.

The purpose of the game is to inform prospective students about Wits with honest student driven views and ideas of Wits, said Geyser.

“The students have gone above and beyond the call of duty to create games that look at Wits in a really cheeky, but fun way,” said Game Design lecturer, Hanli Geyser.

The Vice Chancellor and his team, were very impressed with all three groups’ games and promised to publish all three, where they would have initially chosen and published one.

“When the teams of third-year students were able to create and develop these games with limited resources, experience and knowledge, we were very impressed,” said Wits Marketing Manager, Ferna Clarkson.

The project was included in the students’ course work and were marked accordingly. The initiative will be a recurring project for third-year students, but will not be focussed on Wits like this project, said Geyser.

Although this project is an assignment for the students, which gave them the experience to work for a client and get published, the Vice Chancellor has insisted on giving the students a letter of service and a token of gratitude for their hard work.

The games will be released on the Wits website on May 9, with the hope to release at least one game on mobile platforms later this year.

Published: Wits Vuvuzela on 7 April 2015

Just crazy talk or something more sinister?

just crazy talk or something more sinister
FROM: Perdeby

Remember Amanda Bynes? That kid who had her own TV show on Nickelodeon and later went on to making popular teen movies such as She’s the Man and Hairspray? Yes, the same actress who recently started a fire in a random elderly woman’s driveway as well as accidentally soaking her dog in gasoline and setting her own pants on fire. 

At first glance, the media depicted the now 27-year-old as just another child star who fell off the wagon. However, after being arrested and placed under involuntary psychiatric care last month, several doctors who have been observing Bynes’s behaviour believe that she could be suffering from schizophrenia.

According to the non-profit resource website Helpguide.org, schizophrenia is “a brain disorder that affects the way a person acts, thinks and sees the world”. People who suffer from schizophrenia have an “altered perception of reality”. The most

 common misconception about schizophrenia is that its victims have “split personalities”. However, this is an entirely different disorder known as dissociative identity disorder. Schizophrenia, on the other hand, is when a person’s mental functions are “split” from reality. The cause of schizophrenia is complex and as of yet not fully understood. A connection between genetics and environmental factors has been found to be the most likely cause of the disorder.

Helpguide.org explains that when it comes to genetics, an individual has a 10% chance of developing schizophrenia if his or her parents have had the condition. In total, 40% of schizophrenics have had family members with the disorder.

According to Schizophrenia.com, genetics only make a person more prone to developing schizophrenia but environmental factors such as stress can trigger the disorder. Another cause that plays a role in the development of the disorder is the abnormality of an individual’s brain structure. Many diagnosed schizophrenics have enlarged brain ventricles where there is very little activity in the frontal lobe (part of the brain responsible for reasoning and decision-making).

Janssen Pharmaceutica Inc. in New Jersey found that schizophrenia is more severe in men than it is in women because men develop schizophrenic behaviour at an earlier age. It is argued that men are more likely to hit their head and cause brain damage during sports at a young age, increasing the risk for schizophrenia. The fact that men have more violent and threatening breakouts than women also adds to the equation. Men are more likely to develop schizophrenia between their teens and their 20s, whereas women are more likely to develop it in their 20s or 30s. The younger a person is when he or she develops the disorder, the worse it is.

Although schizophrenia is a rare condition, it can still be found among students. According to Kobus du Plooy, a clinical psychologist at UP Student Support, there have been cases of schizophrenia at UP, “albeit very few,” he says.

Du Plooy says that it only affects about 1% to 1.5% of the total population. Because it is such a rare condition and because every patient tends to show different kinds of signs and symptoms, it is difficult to diagnose a person as schizophrenic.

Schizophrenia can be a devastating disorder for the victims and also for their friends and family. If the condition is not treated properly or if it is ignored, the effects can include disruptions in relationships, drug and alcohol abuse and a high risk of attempted suicide.

Although schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness, there is still hope of a good balanced life. If schizophrenia is properly diagnosed and effectively treated, those suffering from it may improve and carry on living functional lives, according to Du Plooy, whereas the wrong diagnosis and treatment can worsen the condition.

The responsibility to help a person with schizophrenia lies with his or her family and friends. Anyone who has this mental disorder will not even realise that their problems are fueled by an illness. If they are unwilling to seek help from a psychiatrist or psychologist, it is best to inform the police or any other emergency services who can legally detain your loved one for medical analysis. Registered students at UP who suffer from this condition can receive free medical services along with psychotherapy from Student Support.

With the right support and treatment, schizophrenia is a disease that can be kept under control.

 

 Early warning signs and symptoms of schizophrenia:

Signs:

• Withdrawal from social life
• Depression
• No concern for personal hygiene
• Irrational statements
• Inability to show true emotions

Symptoms:

• Delusions: schizophrenics have a strong belief (despite rational evidence) that reality is fake. They may feel like someone is out to get them and/or to control them or they may believe that they are somebody else.
• Hallucinations: schizophrenics hear voices or sounds that seem real to them (these voices are commonly cruel and vulgar). It tends to be worse when they are alone.
• Disorganised speech: they can start a sentence saying one thing and then trail off to another topic entirely. They often repeat themselves and make up words.
• Disorganised behaviour: their daily activities and functions take a toll for the worse, which makes them unable to take care of themselves. This is because they have no impulse or inhibition.

Published: Perdeby